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Julius Caesar 49-44 BC
Queen Cleopatra VII - 51-30 BC. Cleopatra VII became Queen at age 17. She married her elder brother Ptolemy XIII who plotted to kill her. She fled to Syria, and returned with an army. After the battle of Pharalus in 48 BC. Pompey fled to Egypt from Julius Caesar. Pompey was assassinated. Julius Caesar favored Cleopatra ruling over Ptolemy XIII who then besieged the Romans on Pharos island, but was drowned in the battle. Cleopatra married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, but had a son by Julius Caesar named Ptolemy XV Caesarion. When Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Octavian and Anthony struggled for power which culminated in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. Anthony broke off the fight to follow Cleopatra's ships to Egypt. The next year Octavian came with an army to Egypt (30 BC). Cleopatra committed suicide, and Anthony fell on his sword. Thus ended the last Dynasty of Egypt.
Augustus Caesar 31 BC- 14 AD
Octavian who became "Augustus" meaning "exalted" in 27 BC. took Egypt as his personal estate which was ruled by a prefect. The Republic was replaced by imperial rule. This was the Caesar under whom Jesus was born (Luke 2:1). Caesar Augustus brought an age of Peace called "Pax Romana" meaning "Roman Peace." This was the golden age of literature and architecture.
It is under Augustus Caesar that Jesus was born. Luke 2:1 says, "And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed" (KJV).
Luke 2:2 says, (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) (KJV) The problem is that Cyrenius (Quirinius) was governor from 6-9 AD. This census is referred to in Acts 5:37 which says, "After him, Judas the Galilean appeared in the days of the census and led a band of people in revolt. He too was killed, and all his followers were scattered" (NIV). Josephus calls him a man from Gamala in Gaulantis who refused to give any tribute to Caesar. His revolt was put down, but his cause was probably continued on by the Zealots (Antiquities 18.23). One of Jesus' disciples, Simon is called a Zealot (Luke 6:15, Acts 1:13).
Tiberius Caesar 14-37 AD
Jesus' ministry takes place under Tiberius Caesar. When Jesus said, "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar" he was referring to Tiberius. Pilate is appointed and Jesus is crucified.
Caligula (Gaius)Caesar 37-41 AD
Claudius Caesar 41-54 AD
Nero Caesar 54-68 AD
Nero Caesar was the first emperor to persecute Christians. He blamed the Christians for the burning of Rome, and used them to light his gardens at night. Christians were covered with tar and pitch, and then set on fire. The Apostle Paul was beheaded in Rome, and Peter is said to be crucified upside down there. The Beast of Revelation probably refers to Nero and his supposed return.
The mark of the beast 666 in Revelation 13:18 is probably the best know Bible Code. This is called gematria meaning "manipulation with numbers". In both Hebrew and Greek as well as other languages, letters of the alphabet were used as numbers. So names had a certain numerical value. "Nero Caesar" transliterated into the Hebrew from the Greek (Neron Kaiser) adds up to exactly 666 in Hebrew. N=50, R=200, W=6, N=50 plus Q=100, S=60, R=200 totals 666. This spelling of Nero Caesar was found in the discovery of an Aramaic document in Wadi Murabba`at (BASOR 170, 65). The Latin form of "Nero Caesar" when transliterated into Hebrew adds up to 616. This most likely explains the textual variant in Revelation 13:18 with the number 616. It should also be noted that the Greek word for "Beast" when transliterated back into Hebrew adds up to 666. Ancient writers referred to Nero as a "beast" (See Philostratus Vit. Apoll. 4.38; Sib. Or. 5.343; 8.157). For more detailed commentary see Word Biblical Commentary: Revelation 6-16 by David E. Aune. See more details about the Book of Revelation.