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Physics - the study of matter and energy and their interactions.
Atom - the smallest unit of an element that still has the characteristics of that element. It has a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons with electrons circling around its nucleus.
Element - a substance composed of atoms that have the same numbers of protons in its nucleus.
Isotope - Usually the number of protons and electrons are equal in number in an atom, but the number of neutrons may vary. A different number of neutrons in the nucleus means it is an isotope of that element.
Subatomic particles - All matter is made up of two kinds of particles call Quarks and leptons.
Quarks - Protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles called Quarks. The proton is made up of two "up" quarks and one "down" quark. The neutron is just the opposite with one "up" quark and two "down" quarks. There are six different quarks. They come in pairs. UP and DOWN quarks, CHARM and STRANGE, TOP and BOTTOM .
Leptons - are subatomic particles having spin equal to ½ and masses far less than quarks. There are the ELECTRON and ELECTRON NEUTRINO?, MUON and MUON NEUTRINO?, TAU and TAU NEUTRINO?
Four Forces in the Universe according to strength.
Strong force - transmitted by gluons which bind protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom also called the nuclear force. Releasing its power will cause a nuclear explosion.
Electromagnetic force - transmitted by photons which bind electrons in atoms which includes all chemical reactions. Photons are units of electromagnetic radiation including radio waves, light, and X-rays.
Weak force - transmitted by weak bosons of w+, w-, and z particles which involves radioactive decay.
Gravity - transmitted by gravitons.
Radioactive decay - Certain elements like Uranium will decay. They will lose protons, neutrons, and electrons. Neutrons are unstable unless combined with a proton.
There are several types of decay.
Alpha particle decay
Beta particle decay
Gamma ray decay
Antimatter - matter having the opposite electrical charge. If an electron is positively charged it is called a "positron." A negatively charged proton is called an "antiproton."
- "The Discovery of the Top Quark" by Liss and Tipton in Scientific American in September 1997, pp. 54-59.
- "The Mystery of Nucleon Spin" by Rith and Schafer in Scientific American in July 1999, pp. 58-63.
- "A Unified Physics by 2050? by Steven Weinberg in Scientific American December 1999, 68-75.
PBS "Search for the Top Quark" also there is one on Einstein's Theories of Relativity.
Draw a model of an atom.
Make a model of an atom out of gum drops and tooth picks.
Make a model of an atom out of Styrofoam balls. Make sure to include up and down quarks.